8th Grade Science

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    HERMON DEKALB SCHOOL DISTRICT

    INTERMEDIATE SCIENCE CURRICULUM



    8th Grade

    The Key Ideas 

    The key ideas are broad, unifying, general statements that represent knowledge within a domain.  They represent a thematic or conceptual body of knowledge of what students should know.


    The Performance Objectives 

    The Performance Objectives are derived from the Key Ideas in the Core Curriculum.  They are designed to match the Major Understandings and to focus assessment and instructional activities.  Performance Objectives provide a general guideline for skill that students must demonstrate to provide evidence of the acquisition of the standard.


    The Major Understanding 

    The Major Understandings are conceptual statements that make up the Content Standards within each Key Idea.  They were taken from NYS Core Curriculum and the corresponding identification codes were also adopted. These statements should not be taught verbatim but developed conceptually through instructional activities and cognitive processes.


    Suggested Assessments

    These are stated as general categories based on the Major Understandings and Performance Objectives.  They are designed to assess student understanding and acquisition of the standard. Teachers may develop items that focus on those assessment categories or design their own assessments that measure acquisition of the Major Understandings and Performance Objectives.


    Vocabulary

    The essential vocabulary was listed in order to acquire the concepts of the Major Understanding.  Only vocabulary that is in the Elementary or Intermediate Level Science Core Curricula is testable on the ILST. Students should have a mastery of the required vocabulary and be at the acquaintance or familiarity level with the suggested vocabulary.  Visuals should be used to assist in model representations and reinforcement of the terms. 


    The Suggested Activities 

    The suggested activities are designed to enhance the understanding of the concepts and prepare students for the assessment.  Other activities that support the development of the Major Understanding and Performance Objectives in addition to preparing students for the assessment may also be used.

    The Conceptual Question


    The Conceptual question is based in the Performance Objectives and Major Understandings.  It is conceptual in nature and is designed to focus the lesson. Teachers may elect to develop their own focus or conceptual question based on the Major Understandings and Performance Objectives.


    STANDARD 7

    SKILLS AND STRATEGIES FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY PROBLEM SOLVING


    Working Effectively — contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory, partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identifying and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of group.


    Gathering and Processing Information — accessing information from printed media, electronic databases, and community resources using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions.


    Generating and Analyzing Ideas — developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data.


    Common Themes — observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem.

    Realizing Ideasconstructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the results.

    Presenting Resultsusing a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results.
    General Skills

     



    1. Follow safety procedures in the classroom and laboratory.
    2. Safely and accurately use the following measurement tools:
      1. metric ruler
      2. balance
      3. stopwatch
      4. graduated cylinder
      5. thermometer
      6. spring scale
      7. voltmeter 
    3. Use appropriate units for measured or calculated values.
    4. Recognize and analyze patterns and trends.
    5. Classify objects according to an established scheme and a student-generated scheme
    6. Develop and use a dichotomous key.
    7. Sequence events.
    8. Identify cause-and-effect relationships.
    9. Use indicators and interpret results.

     


    Living Environment Skills

     




    1. Manipulate a compound microscope to view microscopic objects.
    2. Determine the size of a microscopic object, using a compound microscope.
    3. Prepare a wet mount slide.
    4. Use appropriate staining techniques.
    5. Design and use a Punnett square or a pedigree chart to predict the probability of certain traits.
    6. Classify living things according to student-generated scheme and an establish scheme.
    7. Interpret and / or illustrate the energy flow in a food chain, energy pyramid, or food web.
    8. Identify pulse points and pulse rates.
    9. Identify structure and function relationships in organisms.

     

    Physical Setting Skills

     


    1. Given the latitude and longitude of a location, indicate its position on a map and determine the latitude and longitude of a given location on a map.
    2. Identify mineral samples using Identification tests and a flow chart. 
    3. Use a diagram of the rock cycle to determine geological processes that led to the formation of a specific rock type.
    4. Plot the location of recent earthquake and volcanic activity on a map and identify patterns of distribution.
    5. Use a magnetic compass to find cardinal directions.
    6. Measure the angular elevation of an object, using appropriate instruments.
    7. Generate and interpret field maps including topographic and weather maps.
    8. Predict the characteristics of an air mass based on the origin of the air mass.
    9. Measure weather variables such as wind speed and direction, relative humidity, barometric pressure, etc.
    10. Determine the density of liquid, regular, and irregular-shaped solids.
    11. Determine the volume of a regular and irregular shaped solid, using water displacement.
    12. Using the periodic table, identify an element as a metal, nonmetal, or noble gas.
    13. Determine the identity of an unknown element, using physical and chemical properties.
    14. Using appropriate resources, separate the parts of a mixture.
    15. Determine the electrical conductivity of a material, using a simple circuit.
    16. Determine the speed and acceleration of a moving object.

    SCIENCE PROCESSING SKILLS

    Observing

    • Using one or more of your senses to gather information about objects or events
    • Seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, or tasting or combinations of these.
    • Observations may be made with the use of some instruments like microscopes, magnifying glasses, etc.
    • Scientific observations are always recorded with appropriate units.
    • Some observations may include measurements, properties or characteristics such as: color, shape, size taste, smell, texture, actions, etc.


    Classifying

    • Separating, arranging, grouping, or distributing objects or events or information representing objects or events into some criteria of common properties, methods, patterns, or systems.
    • Based on an identification process objects or events can be grouped according to similarities or  differences
    • Objects or events are placed into categories based on their identifiable characteristics or attributes.
    • Identification keys or characteristics are used to group objects, events or information. These identifiable keys are also used to retrieve information
    • Students should make or use dichotomous keys to sort characteristics or identify a species.


    Comparing and Contrasting

    • Identifying observable or measurable similarities and differences between two or more objects, data, events or systems
    • Using specific criteria to establish similarities and /or differences between two or more objects or events. Is this redundant?
    • Showing what is common and what is uncommon between two objects, events, conditions, data, etc.


    Inferring

    • A statement, reasonable judgment or explanation based on an observation or set of observations
    • Drawing a conclusion based on past experiences and observations
    • Inferences are influenced by past experiences
    • Predictions are usually include Inferences 
    • Taking previous knowledge and linking it to an observation
    • An untested explanation

    Predicting

    • Making a forecast of future events or conditions expected to exist
    • Forecasting an expected result based on past observations, patterns, trends, data, or evidence
    • Reliable predictions depends on the accuracy of past observations, data, and the nature of the condition or event being predicted
    • Using an inference to predict what will happen in the future
    • Interpolated prediction is made between two known data points
    • Extrapolated prediction is made outside or beyond known data points


    Measuring

    • Making direct and indirect comparisons to a standard unit
    • Each measurement has a number and a unit
    • Making quantitative observations or comparisons to conventional or non-conventional standards
    • Instruments may be used to make reliable, precise, and accurate measurements


    Communicating

    • Verbal, graphic or written exchange of information
    • Describing observations, procedures, results or methods
    • Sharing information or observations with charts, graphs, diagrams, etc.


    Hypothesizing

    • A logical explanation that can be tested
    • Making a possible explanation based on previous knowledge and observations
    • Is more than an “educated” guess
    • Proposing a solution to a problem based on some pertinent information on the problem
    • Constructing an explanation based on knowledge of the condition
    • Tells how one variable will affect the other variable
    • Identifying variables and their relationship(s)
    • Has three parts; (a condition) such as “IF” along with predicted results “then” and an explanation which includes cause.   THEN(predicted results) BECAUSE(explanation)

    Testing a Hypothesis/ Experimenting

    • Following a logical procedure to gather evidence to support or reject the hypothesis
    • Applying the scientific method to gather evidence  which support or causes rejection of the hypothesis 
    • Testing variables and then drawing conclusions based on the results
    • Designing investigations to test hypotheses
    • Testing how one variable affects the other
    • Following a precise method to test a hypothesis
    • Forming conclusions based on information collected
    • Controlling variables to isolate how one variable may affect the other.
    • Answering a research question


    Making Models

    • Creating representations of objects, ideas or events to demonstrate how something looks or works
    • Models may be physical or mental representations
    • Models can be computer generated
    • Displaying information, using multi-sensory representations


    Constructing Graphs

    • Identifying dependent and independent variables and showing relationships
    • Decide on which axis to plot the dependent and independent variable.
    • Showing comparisons between two or more  objects or events
    • Distribution of percentages
    • Producing a visual representative of data that shows relationships, comparisons or distribution
    • Labeling and scaling the axis
    • Descriptive data – bar graph
    • Continuous data – line graph
    • Converts discreet data into an appropriate graphical display 
    • Extrapolation of data follows trend and recognizing  reasonable results (all graphs do not need to go to the origin)
    • Interpolation of graphical result to estimate an unmeasured point ( such as reading the temp at 5 minutes )


    Collecting and Organizing Data

    • Producing data tables appropriate for the designed experiment
    • Gathering raw information, qualitative and quantitative observations and measurements using approved methods or systems
    • Categorizing and tabulating the information to illustrate patterns or trends
    • Recording measurements, make drawings, diagrams, lists or descriptions
    • Observing, sampling, estimating, and measuring items or events and putting the information in an ordered or tabulated format.
    • Sorting, organizing and presenting information to better display the results
    • Using titles, tables, and units for columns 


    Analyzing and Interpreting Data

    • Looking for patterns, trends or relationships in the arrangement of data
    • Deciding what the collection of information means
    • Looking at pieces of data to understand the whole
    • Looking at the independent and dependent variables and their relationship
    • Looking for consistency and discrepancies in the data
    • Making sense of the observations, data, etc. 


    Forming Conclusions

    • Making final statements based on the interpretation of data
    • Making a decision or generalization based on evidence supported by the data
    • Telling whether the data supports the hypothesis or not
    • A factual summary of the data


    Researching Information

    • Asking questions and looking for relevant information to answer it
    • Using various methods and sources to find information
    • Identifying variables and asking questions about it followed by gathering relevant information.
    • Research questions may focus on one variable or the relationship between two variables.
    • Asking relevant questions to a specific problem and identify resources to gather information and answer the problem

    Formulating Questions

    • Asking the who, what, where, when, why, how, what if, of the problem, information,  or even
    • Using the given information to search for further understanding 
    • Asking textually explicit questions that can be answered by the text.
    • Asking textually implicit questions that are inferential and cannot be answered by the text alone
    • Asking testable question


    Estimating

    • Making a judgment about the size or number of an item, or attribute without actually measuring it
    • Making a judgment based on past experiences or familiarity


    Identifying Variables

    • Stating and explaining the independent(manipulated) and dependent(responding) variables and their relationships
    • Showing the cause and effect relationship in respect to the variables
    • Any factor, condition, or relationship that can affect the outcome of an experiment, event or system.
    • There are three types of variables in an experiment, manipulated (independent), responding (dependent) controlled (other variables that are held constant).


    Controlling Variables

    • Keeping variables consistent or constant throughout and experiment
    • Controlling the effect or factors that influence the investigation


    Forming Operational Definitions

    • Tell how an object, item, idea, or model functions works or behaves
    • Tells the purpose or the use of the object or model
    • Tells what the term means and how to recognize it

    Reading Scales and Instruments

    • Identifying the intervals and scales
    • Reading or counting the total number of scales, graduations or points
    • Identifying initial and final measurements, counts or increments


    Calibrating Instruments

    • Setting the instrument to zero before beginning to use it
    • Adjusting the instrument to measure exact with known copies
    • Setting the instrument measures to a known standard 


    Following Procedures

    • Following a given set of oral or written directions to accomplish a specific task to obtain desired results


    Applying Formulas

    • Applying theoretical formulas to a concrete or abstract situation
    • Applying a theoretical measurement to a model
    • Gathering information from a known condition or situation and substituting the elements or variables into a formula.


    Interpreting Scientific Illustrations 

    • Looking for connections, sequences and relationships amongst the components
    • Identifying individual and multiple relationships
    • Categorizing groups and individual entities
    • Reading the label or description of the illustration

    Sequencing

    • Ordering, listing or organizing steps, pieces, attributes or entities according to a set of criteria
    • Identifying the elements and organizing them chronologically

    Conduct an Investigation

    • Identify the question or problem 
    • Conduct some preliminary research
    • Identify the variables
    • Develop and follow the procedures
    • Make observations and collect data
    • Analyze the information and report the results


    Identifying Properties

    • Selecting items, conditions or events based on specific attributes or features


    Evaluating

    • Making a judgment of worth or merit based on a set of criteria
    • Deciding to approve or disapprove a condition based on some standard
    • Asking how the data was obtained or how the information was collected
    • Asking how the investigation was done
    • Determine validity of data based on experimental design


    Seeking and Providing Evidence

    • Searching for and sharing factual information
    • Identifying relationships or proofs that support an argument
    • Stating specific and significant or relevant information to support an idea, decision or argument


    Making decisions

    • Gathering relevant information, or evidence to support a choice between alternatives

    Manipulating Materials

    • Handling materials and equipment in a safe, skillfully and in an appropriate manner
    • Demonstrate proper use of laboratory safety equipment


    Generalizing

    • Making a general statements from specifics, particulars, or components


    Identifying Cause and Effect Relationships

    • Recognizing the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable
    • Identifying controlled variables in an experiment and the influence of the experimental variable on the outcome


    Constructing Tables

    • Placing similar information into categories
    • Ordering discrete information into groups to develop patterns, trends, etc.
    • Using columns and rows to distinguish elements and components of the information


    Analyzing Results

    • Determine the meaning of the data collected
    • Identifying specific patterns from the information or effects
    • Separating the information to understand the components


    Interpreting Graphs

    • Identify the variables and categories
    • Look for relationships and patterns
    • Look for sources of errors 
    • Asking what is evident from the information
    • Can interpolations and extrapolations be made from the data

    Interpreting Diagrams

    • Tell what the objects, or items represents
    • Tell what the diagram is a model of, or represents
    • Tell how the diagram illustrates relationships, operational definitions, functions, concepts or schemes
    • Tell the sequence of events or the chronology of the elements
    • Construct an explanation from the interrelated parts or component

    STANDARD 1

    ANALYSIS, INQUIRY, AND DESIGN




    Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering designs, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Mathematical Analysis


    Key Idea 1: The abstractions and symbolic representations are used to communicate mathematically.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    M1.1 Extend mathematically notation and symbolism to include variables and algebraic expressions in order to describe and compare quantities and express mathematical relationships.



    (Science 5,6,7)

    • Identify independent and dependent variables.
    • Identify relationships among variables including: direct, indirect, cyclic, constant; identify non-related material such as color  or brand name if color has no bearing on the relationship

    Apply mathematical equations to describe relationships among variables in the natural world   including inverse and direct relationship

    • Label and describe the dependent and independent variables.
    • Identify and describe the relationship among variables.
    • Apply mathematical equations to represent the relationship among variables.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    dependent variable

    independent variable

    direct relationship

    indirect relationship

    cyclic relationship

    constant

    equation

    symbolic representation

    mathematical representation

    • Practice developing scientific explanation using mathematical equations and values.
    • Use graphs to display relationships among variables.
    • Construct and analyze graphs that represent scientific data.


    • How can scientific information or relationships be represented mathematically?

     Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design 

    Mathematical Analysis


    Key Idea 2: Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    M2.1 Use inductive reasoning to construct, evaluate, and validate conjectures and arguments, recognizing that patterns and relationships can assist in explaining and extending mathematical phenomena.




    (Science 5,6,7)

    • Interpolate and extrapolate from data.
    • Qualify? Patterns and trends.
    • Predict quantifiable patterns or trends from data.
    • Determine unknown values from given known values.
    • Explain patterns, trends, causes and effects using data.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    inductive reasoning

    deductive reasoning

    generalization

    evaluate

    validate

    extrapolate

    interpolate

    quantify 





    • Analyze case studies, graphs, charts, and tables to determine trends and make predictions.



    • Why is it important to organize information into charts, graphs, tables, etc.?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design 

    Mathematical Analysis


    Key Idea 3: Critical thinking skills are used in the solution of mathematical problems.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    M3.1 Apply mathematical knowledge to solve real-world problems and problems that arise from investigation of mathematical ideas, using representations such as picture, charts, and tables.




    (Science 5,6,7)

    • Use appropriate scientific tools to solve problems about the natural world.
    • Design and explain flow charts that represent procedures.
    • Construct and explain graphic representation of collected information.
    • Analyze charts, graphs and tables to explain relationships.





    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    Chart

    Table


    Graph (S3.1)

    Tabulate

    Flow chart (PS Skills 2)





    Conduct activities that engage students in collecting information and representing that information mathematically using representations such as picture, charts, and tables.



    • How can scientific information be used to solve real world problems using representations such as pictures, charts or tables?










    SCIENCE 

    STANDARD 6

    INTERCONNECTEDNESS

    AND

    COMMON THEMES




     







    Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Systems thinking

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    KI 6.1 Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions




    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Describe the difference between dynamic systems and organizational systems.
    • Describe the differences and similarities among engineering systems, natural systems, and social systems
    • Describe the difference between open and closed-loop systems.
    • Describe how the output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts.
    • Analyze systems and identify the role of each component.
    • Identify and describe various types of systems.
    • Describe how various sub systems interact with each other.
    • Explain why systems are designed to operate and produce certain results.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    interrelate

    dynamic systems

    organizational systems

    open system

    closed-loop-system

    input

    output







    • Observe the operation of various systems.
    • Compare and contrast a living system with a non-living system.
    • Construct a diagram that represents a system.
    • Construct a flow chart for a nonliving system (such as Polos furnace) which includes feedback to keep the system controlled.  
    • Construct a flow chart for a living system (such as a cell, organ or organism) which includes feedback mechanisms for oxygen demand, reproduction, turning off insulin production, etc.
    • Why are systems developed?
    • What makes a system efficient?
    • What is the role of feedback in looped systems?


    Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Models

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    KI 6.2 Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.





    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Select appropriate model to begin the search for answers or solutions to a question or problem.  
    • Use models to study processes that cannot be studied directly (e.g., when real process is too slow, too fast, or too dangerous for direct observation).
    • Demonstrate the effectiveness of different models to represent the same thing and the same model to represent different things.


    • Design various models to represent and explain natural phenomena or systems.
    • Analyze various models to determine how well they represent natural phenomena.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    models


    mental models

    physical models

    mathematical/graphical models










    • Design and build various models to represent and explain various phenomena.
    • Observe and analyze various models.
    • Identify parts of a Model which are inaccurate in some areas in order to show a concept. (such as a desktop model of a cell, atom or planetary system)
    • Why do we construct and use models?

    Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Magnitude and scale

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    KI 6.3 The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scales that affect the behavior and design of systems.




    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Cite examples of how different aspects of natural and design systems change at different rates with changes in scale.
    • Use powers of ten notations to represent very small and very large numbers.
    • Convert values from standard notation to exponential notation and vise versa
    • Describe the ratios and magnitude of changes using scales.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    magnitude

    frequency

    scale

    range 

    relative order


    scientific notation

    intensity

    duration

    rank order





    • Observe, record, and measure changes over time. Rank order the changes and determine the ratios and magnitudes.
    • Observe changes over time and look for consistency and inconsistencies.
    • Rank order the change in acidity with simple changes in pH. 
    • Pressure scale for atmospheric weather, (relatively) small changes out of 1000 mb are not interpreted as small.
    • Record your weight over 3 weeks with the top of the scale being 1000 pounds.  What does your graph look like?
    • How can changes be represented to show magnitudes?

    Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Equilibrium and stability

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    KI 6.4 Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of change (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).




    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Describe how feedback mechanisms are used in both designed and natural systems to keep changes within desired limits.
    • Describe changes within equilibrium cycles in terms of frequency or cycle length and determine the highest and lowest values and when they occur.
    • Describe positive and negative feedback
    • Explain why consistency or equilibrium is important in various systems.
    • Compare static equilibrium with dynamic equilibrium.
    • Describe the role that drinking water has in dynamic equilibriums that depend on sweat?

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    equilibrium

    stability

    static equilibrium

    dynamic equilibrium

    equilibrium cycles


    opposing forces

    positive feedback

    negative feedback

    unbalanced force

    balanced force 

    • Study positive and negative feedback systems and observe how they function in maintaining equilibrium.
    • Observe how forces work against and with each other to maintain balance.
    • Balance a meter stick on your hand. Explain why this equilibrium is dynamic and what feedback systems are used to maintain this equilibrium.
    • Describe the role of sweating or shivering on maintaining body temperature.  
    • What is equilibrium?
    • How is equilibrium achieved?

    Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Patterns of change

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    KI 6.5 Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.






    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Use simple linear equations to represent how a parameter changes with time.
    • Observe patterns of change in trends or cycles and make predictions on what might happen in the future.
    • Describe how various patterns are used to make inferences and predictions.
    • Make inferences on data and use these to make predictions and observe data.
    • (moved to activity)

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    linear (S6 5.1)

    cyclical (S4 KI1)

    loop (S6 1.3)









    • Collect information or changes in behavior and conditions to establish patterns and trends.
    • Observe changes in patterns and trends to determine causes and make predictions.
    • Analyze patterns of change in friends to understand behaviors and show that relationships can be transient. 
    • How are predictions made?
    • How are inferences used to make predictions?


    Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Optimization

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    KI 6.6 In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make trade-offs.





    (Science 5.6.7)






    • Determine the criteria and constraints and make trade-offs to determine the best decision.
    • Use graphs of information for decision-making problem to determine the optimum solution.
    • Develop various criteria for making decision.
    • List alternatives for specific choices under various conditions.
    • List advantages and disadvantages for making certain decisions.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    constraints

    criteria

    optimum solution


    alternatives (S1 T1.3b)

    disadvantages 

    advantages(S2 2.2)








    • Practice decision making based on specific criteria.
    • Practice developing criteria for making decisions under certain conditions.
    • Develop an ideal sports team which has a salary cap. What effect would spending most of your money on a few stars have on a team?
    • Develop a strategy to control both cost and use of fossil fuels and alternate energy sources.  
    • Why do we need criteria for making decisions?
    • Why is it important to know advantages and disadvantages before making a decision/choice? 

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S1.3 Represent, present, and defend their proposed explanations of everyday observations so that they can be understood and assessed by others.




    (Science 6.7)

    • Develop a systematic approach to clarify explanations for presentations.
    • Design and develop a set of questions to clarify explanations (who, when, what, where, how).
    • Design and develop a set of steps to present the explanation.




    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    clarifying questions

    methods

    procedures  

    proposed explanation











    • Provide practice opportunities for students to develop, revise, and critique various explanation formats.
    • Model for students a presentation that meets a set of external criteria.




    • How can explanations be effectively presented?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S1.4 Seek to clarify, to assess critically, and to reconcile with their own thinking the ideas presented by others, including peers, teachers, authors, and scientists.





    (Science 6.7)




    • Design methods of analyzing ideas individually and collectively.
    • Analyze the ideas, explanations or proposals of others.
    • Ask critical and clarifying questions of ideas presented.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    assess

    analyze

    critique

    clarify 










    • Have students ask questions based on oral and written presentations.
    • Collectively critique the presentation of others.
    • Have students contrast constructive and destructive criticisms of a presentation using empathy. 



    • What makes an effective presentation of ideas?
    • What should be included in informed professional criticisms?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S2.1 Use conventional techniques and those of their own design to make further observations and refine their explanations, guided by a need for more information.






    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Demonstrate appropriate safety techniques.
    • Conduct an experiment designed by others.
    • Design and conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis.
    • Use appropriate tools and conventional techniques to solve problems about the natural world, including:
    • measuring
    • observing
    • describing
    • classifying
    • sequencing
    • Identify and use the appropriate instruments to conduct metric measurements.
    • Identify and perform standard safety techniques within the investigation.
    • Design and conduct simple investigation to answer a question/test a hypothesis.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    metric

    scientific method

    investigations

    procedures 

    accuracy

    precision

    safety precautions

    • Model for students how to use lab instruments properly.
    • Conduct measurement activities on mass, volume, length, temperature, force, etc.
    • Design and follow the procedures of an investigation.
    • Have students suggest an alternative parameter to measure when a measureable hypothesis fails to produce a predicted result.  (such as period of a pendulum depending on mass or measuring temp of ice when salt is added) 


    • Why are precision and accuracy important in laboratory investigations?
    • What changes should be made in experimental design to refine the results?  
    • When do we need to change experimental parameters that we measure in response to a result?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S2.2 Develop, present, and defend formal research proposals for testing their own explanations of common phenomena, including ways of obtaining needed observations and ways of conducting simple controlled experiments.





    (Science 6.7)

    • Include appropriate safety procedures.
    • Design scientific investigations (e.g., observing, describing, and comparing; collecting samples; seeking more information, conducting a controlled experiment; discovering new objects or phenomena; making models).
    • Design a simple controlled experiment.
    • Identify independent variables (manipulated), depended variables (responding), and constants in a simple controlled experiment.
    • Choose appropriate sample size and number of trials.
    • Identify the parts of an experiment.
    • Design and conduct an experiment.
    • Identify the variables in an experiment.
    • Explain why the experimental method was chosen.
    • Identify flaws in various experimental design

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    scientific investigation

    independent variables

    dependent variables

    controlled experiment

    controlled variables

    • Conduct several laboratory activities that emphasize various aspects of the controlled experiment.
    • Evaluate experimental studies to become familiar with the process.
    • Evaluate experimental studies to identify flaws in the design.
    • Discuss Effect of NutraSweet or drugs on lab rats.  Should we give a very large amount of chemical to simulate a Lifetime dose or should we wait long term with smaller dose?  
    • Have students write a position paper on a proposed controversial study involving a health study.
    • How is the scientific method employed in the design of experiments?
    • How can we design a controlled experiment?
    • When is a study result considered “ethical”.   

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S2.3 Carry out their research proposals, recording observations and measurements (e.g., lab notes, audiotape, computer disk, videotape) to help assess the explanation.






    (Science 6.7)

    • Use appropriate safety procedures.
    • Conduct a scientific investigation.
    • Collect quantitative and qualitative data.
    • Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data.
    • Follow the design of an experimental procedure.
    • Demonstrate knowledge of safety practices.
    • Demonstrate the ability to collect relevant information.



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    quantitative data

    qualitative data

    research proposal

    safety precautions








    • Conduct a series of lab activities to collect quantitative data.
    • Conduct a series of lab activities to collect qualitative data.
    • Conduct a single variable investigation.
    • What are the components of an effective research design/proposal?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional an invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S3.1 Design charts, tables, graphs, and other representations of observations in conventional and creative ways to help them address their research question or hypothesis.





    (Science 5.6.7)

    • Organize results, using appropriate graphs, diagrams, data tables, and other models to show relationships.
    • Generate and use scales, create legends, and appropriately label axis.





    • Construct charts and tables of data.
    • Tabulate and graph data.
    • Organize data into tables, graphs, and charts to represent the information and draw conclusions.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    data

    tabulate

    x-axis

    y-axis

    direct relationships

    inverse relationships

    coordinate






    • Model for students how to organize information into tables, charts, and graphs.
    • Practice constructing tables, charts, and graphs.
    • Why should data be organized?
    • How do we organize information into meaningful ways?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional an invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S3.2 Interpret the organized data to answer the research question or hypothesis and to gain insight into the problem.







    (Science 7)

    • Accurately describe the procedures used and the data gathered.
    • Identify sources of error and the limitations of data collected.
    • Evaluate the original hypothesis in light of the data.
    • Formulate and defend explanations and conclusions as they relate to scientific phenomena
    • Form and defend a logical argument about cause-and-effect relationships in an investigation.
    • Make predictions based on experimental data.
    • Suggest improvements and recommendations for further studying.
    • Use and interpret graphs and data tables.
    • Interpret the information contained in the graphs, charts, and tables.
    • Analyze the procedures used to collect the data.
    • Draw conclusions and note predictions based on the data.
    • Describe relationships based on the data.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    cause-and-effect relationships

    error analysis

    data interpretation

    Tabulated data

    • Conduct error analysis on various forms of data.
    • Model interpretation and drawing conclusions from data.
    • Practice the identification and description of relationships with organized data.
    • What can we learn from the data collection and interpretation?
    • What can be learned from data?

    Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design

    Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional an invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    S3.3 Modify their personal understanding of phenomena based on evaluation of their hypothesis.





    (Science 7)

    • Explain how data is used as evidence to support or reject the hypothesis.
    • Explain how data can be accurately or inaccurately collected and interpreted.





    • Demonstrate how data can be used to support or reject a hypothesis.
    • Demonstrate how data is cited as evidence from experimental process.
    • Analyze data for inaccuracy.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    accuracy

    precision

    inconsistent procedures

    evidence 










    • Conduct a series of analyses of various experimental data and determine the degree of accuracy.
    • Have students graph data which contains an inconsistency so that students can find suspect results from inconsistency.
    • Have students conduct the same lab activities and collect the same amount and types of data and analyze for inconsistencies.
    • How is experimental evidence used to evaluate a hypothesis?





    SCIENCE 

    STANDARD 4




    The Living Environment

    The Physical Setting




    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Performance Indicator 4.3 Observe and describe developmental patterns in selected plants and animals (e.g., insects, frogs, humans, seed-bearing plants).


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.3a Multicellular organisms exhibit complex changes in development, which begin after fertilization.  The fertilized egg undergoes numerous cellular divisions that will result in a multicellular organism, with each cell having identical genetic information.








    • Sequence and explain the stages of development from embryo to adult in various organisms.
    • Explain the influence of genetic information on growth and development of multicellular organisms.

    • Explain how cellular division and specialization is based on programmed genetic information.
    • Identify the stages of development of various organisms from egg to adult.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    fertilization

    fertilized egg

    cellular divisions

    genetic information

    multicellular organism


    embryonic development (LE)

    cellular specialization (LE)

    cellular differentiation (LE)

    zygote (LE)




    • Watch videos on embryonic development.
    • Conduct research on genetic diseases that occur during pregnancy.
    • Investigate the human genome project.
    • Discuss stem cell research.

    • How does a fertilized egg develop into an adult organism?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Performance Indicator 4.3 Observe and describe developmental patterns in selected plants and animals (e.g., insects, frogs, humans, seed-bearing plants).

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.3b In humans, the fertilized egg grows into tissue which develops into organs and organ systems before birth.












    • Describe the early stages of specialized cells for humans.
    • Identify the increasing complexity of development from cell to organ  system

    • Explain the order of cell specialization. 


    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    tissue

    organs 

    organ systems

    birth









    • Analyze models, charts, diagrams, and videos on embryonic development of humans.

    • How does a human develop from a single cell?


    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Performance Indicator 4.4 Observe and describe cell division at the microscopic level and its macroscopic effects.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.4a In multicellular organisms, cell division is responsible for growth, maintenance, and repair.  In some one-celled organisms, cell division is a method of asexual reproduction.




    • Describe the role of cell division in growth, maintenance, and repair.
    • Describe the role of cell division in asexual reproduction for one-celled organisms.

    • Explain the process of cell division in various organisms.
    • Identify and explain the various roles of cell division in growth and repair.
    • Explain how cell division maintains the number of chromosomes in the cell/organism.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    cell division

    multicellular organism

    growth

    maintenance

    repair

    one-celled organism

    asexual reproduction


    binary fission

    mitosis (LE)

    meiosis (LE)

    budding




    • Show videos, diagrams, models, and illustrations of cell division. Sequence the events of cell division on a concept map.

    • How important is cell division in multicellular organism?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Performance Indicator 4.4 Observe and describe cell division at the microscopic level and its macroscopic effects.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.4b In one type of cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and then separated into two identical and complete sets to be passed to each of the two resulting cells.  In this type of cell division, the hereditary information is identical in all the cells that result.







    • Describe the importance of the process of mitosis.
    • Describe how genetic information is passed on in cell division.

    • Sequence and label the stages in mitosis.
    • Describe the events of each stage in mitosis (plants and animals).
    • Explain the importance of the end result of mitosis.
    • Explain how genetic information is passed on during Mitosis.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    chromosomes

    duplicated

    hereditary information


    mitosis (LE)

    cell plate

    prophase

    metaphase

    anaphase

    telophase

    diploid


    • View slides of plant cells undergoing mitosis.
    • Construct graphic organizers of the phases in mitosis.
    • Observe diagrams and models of cell division.

    • How do cells make an exact copy of themselves?
    • Why is it important to have identical cells?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Performance Indicator 4.4 Observe and describe cell division at the microscopic level and its macroscopic effects.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.4c Another type of cell division accounts for the production of egg and sperm cells in sexually reproducing organisms.  The eggs and sperm resulting from this type of cell division contain one-half of the hereditary information.








    • Describe how meiotic cell divisions egg and sperms cells result in fewer (1/2) chromosomes. Describe the impact on the genetic information from the process of meiosis.

    • Sequence and label the stages in meiosis.
    • Identify and describe the events of each stage of meiosis.
    • Explain the results of meiosis.
    • List the importance of meiosis.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    egg

    sperm


    meiosis (LE)

    gamete (LE)

    crossing over

    haploid

    chromosomes (4.4b)

    diploid






    • View slides, videos, and illustrations of meiosis and construct a graphic organizer to represent the events.
    • Construct models of the process of meiosis and discuss the events.

    • How do sperm and egg receive only one-half (1/2) the number of chromosomes?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Performance Indicator 4.4 Observe and describe cell division at the microscopic level and its macroscopic effects.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.4d Cancers are a result of abnormal cell division.












    • Explain how (uncontrolled) cell division may result in cancer.

    • Identify abnormalities in the process of cell divisions.
    • Identify cause and effect relationships with abnormalities in cell division and cancer.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    cancer 




    mutagen

    chromosome abnormality

    carcinogen










    • Conduct internet based research on the causes and mechanisms of cancer growth.
    • Observe videos on cancer and have students establish cause and effect.

    • How does cancer develop?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.1 Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.1a Hereditary information is contained in genes.  Genes are composed of DNA that makes up the chromosomes of cells.









    • Describe the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
    • Describe how genetic information is encoded in DNA.

    • Identify and define DNA, genes, chromosomes, and genetic code.
    • Describe complementary base paring.
    • Rank order DNA, genes, and chromosomes in terms of size.



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    hereditary

    chromosome

    DNA 

    gene


    nitrogen-containing base pairs: 

    adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

    replication (LE)

    base paring


    • Construct complementary strands of DNA
    • Have students determine how many different combinations the four "letters" A, T, G, and C can be arranged. (Such as in groups of three.)
    • Build DNA models 



    • Where are genes located in a cell?
    • What is DNA?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.1 Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation.


    Major Understanding 5.1a

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.1b Each gene carries a single unit of information.

    A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or by many pairs of genes.

    A human cell contains thousands of different genes.


    • Describe structure and function of DNA molecule.
    • Explain how genes lead to traits.

    •  
    • Explain why some individuals inherit traits such as allergies and eye color. 

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    inherited 

    trait










    • Identify specific genetic traits such as tongue curling, widow’s peak, attached ear lobes, eye color etc.
    • Identify genetically linked diseases or allergies

    • What role does the gene play in producing inherited traits?  
    • What role do genes play in genetic variability? Such as genetic variability of 


    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.1 Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.1c Each human cell contains a copy of all the genes needed to produce a human being.











    • Explain how a human cell replicates through the process of mitosis
    • Explain how a human sex cell develops into a sperm or egg.

    • Compare and contrast the results of meiosis and mitosis.
    • Distinguish between the number of chromosomes in a body cell and a sex cell.
    • Describe how genetic information is carried and/or copied in human cells.



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    genes


    mitosis

    meiosis

    sex cell

    sperm

    egg





    • Develop/construct flow charts of cell division (mitosis/meiosis) including number of chromosomes and compare their results.
    • Explain how the number of chromosomes changes during fertilization



    • How do cells make identical copies of themselves?
    • How does a human cell become a sex cell?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.1 Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.1d In asexual reproduction, all the genes come from a single parent.  Asexually produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent.







    • Describe the various forms of asexual reproduction.
    • Students will be able to describe the events in each stage of mitosis. 

    • Describe the events and outcome of different forms of asexual reproduction.
    • Compare and contrast the various forms of asexual reproduction.




    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    asexual reproduction

    genetically identical


    regeneration

    budding

    mitosis

    prokaryotes

    eukaryotes

    binary fission

    spores







    • Design a controlled experiment using Planarian to show regeneration.
    • Show videos on binary fission and other forms of asexual reproduction.
    • Observe hydra and yeast budding under the microscope.

    • Why are asexually produced offspring genetically identical to the parent?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.1 Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.1e In sexual reproduction, typically half of the genes come from each parent.  Sexually produced offspring are not identical to either parent.









    • Explain why sexual reproduction does not produce identical offspring.

    • Sequence the events of meiosis
    • Compare and contrast the events and outcomes of meiosis and mitosis
    • Compare and contrast the events and outcomes of sexual and asexual reproduction.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    sexual reproduction


    fertilization

    zygote

    diploid

    haploid

    meiosis

    crossing-over

    independent assortment


    • Investigate the differences at the chromosomal level of sexual reproduction versus asexual reproduction.

    • Are sexually produced offspring genetically identical or genetically different to the parent(s)?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.2 Describe simple mechanisms related to the inheritance of some physical traits in offspring.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.2a In all organisms, genetic traits are passed from generation to generation.












    • Describe traits that are inherited.
    • Describe traits/characteristics that are not inherited.

    • Define inherited traits   
    • Provide examples of traits/characteristics that are not inherited.
    • Using the process of sexual and asexual reproduction explain the mechanics of inheritance



     

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    genetic traits

    generation


    heredity

    allele

    genetics

    hybrid

    dominant

    recessive






    • Conduct investigations on genetics using Punnett squares to calculate the probability of inheritance

    • How are traits inherited?
    • Which traits are inherited and why?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.2 Describe simple mechanisms related to the inheritance of some physical traits in offspring.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.2b Some genes are dominant and some are recessive.  Some traits are inherited by mechanisms other than dominance and recessiveness.









    • Explain how inherited traits may or may not be expressed.
    • Explain the principles of dominance and recessive. 

    • Determine the probability of dominance and recessive expressions.
    • Distinguish and identify dominant and recessive traits.
    • Determine the phenotype given the genotype.



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    dominant

    recessive


    Incomplete dominance 

    Polygenic inheritance 

    Sex-linked gene

    Multiple alleles

    Co-dominance

    Pure

    Hybrid

    Heterogeneous dominant

    Homogenous dominant

    phenotype

    genotype


    • Conduct probability activities to demonstrate how genes are inherited.
    • Observe and list dominant and recessive traits in various organisms.



    • Why are some traits expressed and others are not?
    • What causes a trait to be expressed?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 2: Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parent and offspring.

    Performance Indicator 2.2 Describe simple mechanisms related to the inheritance of some physical traits in offspring.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.2c The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance.  Some models of prediction are Pedigree charts and Punnett squares.









    • Predict the probability of the inheritance of specific traits using a Punnett square.
    • Use a Pedigree Chart to track an origin of a trait.

    • Determine the probability of inheritance using Punnett squares.
    • Describe the phenotype based on the probability of the genotype.
    • Explain the inheritance pattern of specific traits using Pedigree charts.



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    pedigree chart

    genetic inheritance

    Punnett square

    expressed


    prediction 

    probability








    • Conduct a series of probability exercises using Punnett squares. 
    • Use a Pedigree Chart to identify the origin of a specific trait.

    • How can a Punnett square help predict inheritance of traits?
    • How can a Pedigree Chart be used to track the origin of a specific trait?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.1 Describe sources of variation in organisms and their structures and relate the variations to survival.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1a The process of sexual reproduction and mutation has given rise to a variety of traits within a species.










    • Explain how sexual reproduction and mutation leads to variation.

    • Explain what happens when the cell carrying a mutation reproduces.
    • Describe how mutations can occur in the DNA when it is copied inside a cell.
    • Identify factors that may lead to mutations.
    • Trace a mutation in the sequence of DNA to the variation in the species.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    sexual reproduction

    mutation 

    traits

    species


    sexual recombination

    variation










    • Investigate the causes and effects of certain mutagenic substances
    • Investigate how sexual recombination brings about variation.

    • How does sexual reproduction lead to genetic variability?
    • What sources can cause genetic mutations?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.1 Describe sources of variation in organisms and their structures and relate the variations to survival.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1b Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms with a particular trait.  Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors.  Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely to survive and have offspring than individuals without those traits.




    • Describe the basic Principles of Natural Selection.
    • Explain how survival of species may depend on the variation of a single trait.

    • Explain what is meant by “survival of the fittest.”
    • Define variation, adaptation, natural selection, and adaptive trait.
    • Explain how variation occurs in the generation of species.




    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    environmental conditions

    offspring

    successive generations

    descendants

    ancestors


    variation

    adaptation

    Charles Darwin

    evolution

    natural selection

    adaptive trait


    • Conduct investigation activities to show how  certain traits may lead to survival of a species in certain environments:
      • Camouflage
      • Climate
      • Feeding
      • Competition

    • Why do some species of organisms survive in a given environment while others do not?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.1 Describe sources of variation in organisms and their structures and relate the variations to survival.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1c Human activities such as selective breeding and advances in genetic engineering may affect the variations of species.









    • Sequentially describe the steps in making genetically engineered organisms.
    • Describe situations in which genetic engineering may be helpful/ harmful.

    • Compare and contrast selective breeding with random mating.
    • Compare and contrast artificial selection with natural selection



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    genetic engineering

    selective breeding

    variations


    recombinant DNA 

    artificial selection

    natural selection










    • Students to research genetic engineering, especially of crops.  
    • Read/research case studies on genetic engineering.


    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.2 Describe factors responsible for competition within species and the significance of that competition.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2a In all environments, organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources.









    • Identify and describe environmental factors that lead to competition for resources.
    • Describe how limited resources may lead to competition within species.

    • Identify environmental factors that lead to competition.
    • Explain the relationship between limited resources and survival.
    • Describe the relationship between limited resources and population growth.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    compete/ competition

    resources


    carrying capacity

    limited resources

    population growth

    limiting factor











    • Conduct activities that demonstrate the effects of limiting factors on population growth.
    • Conduct activities on competitive behaviors amongst organisms.
    • Show videos on competition amongst species in a community.

    • Why does competition occur within species in the same environment?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.2 Describe factors responsible for competition within species and the significance of that competition.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2b Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to permit its survival.  Extinction of species is common. Fossils are evidence that a great variety of species existed in the past.








    • Describe the factors that lead to extinction.
    • Explain how fossils are used provide evidence of extinction of a species.

    • Define the process of extinction.
    • Describe various factors that lead to extinction.
    • Explain how fossils provide evidence of extinction.
    • Identify the adaptive trait that an extinct population lacked.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    extinction

    environment

    adaptive characteristics

    survival

    fossil










    • Conduct activities that show the factors that lead to extinction of species.
    • Observe fossils and show how they provide evidence of past-existence.

    • How does a species or population become extinct?

    Standard 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.2 Describe factors responsible for competition within species and the significance of that competition.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2c Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the long history of changing life forms whose remains are found in the rocks.  Recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species.






    • Explain that relationship between the age of the fossil and the depth that it is located in sedimentary rock.

    • Describe how sedimentary rocks contain fossils.
    • Analyze the relationship of the depth of the rock to the age of the fossil.
    • Compare and contrast the age of fossils found in different sedimentary rock layers.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    sedimentary rock

    deposited


    fossils(3.2b)












    • Survey and compare the fossils found in various rock layers.
    • Sequence fossils from the earliest to the most recent.

    • How can the age of a fossil be determined?
    • How can extinct life forms provide evidence of the Earth’s history?

    Standard 4:   The Living Environment

    Key Idea 3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

    Performance Indicator 3.2 Describe factors responsible for competition within species and significance of that competition.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    3.2d Although the time needed for change in a species is usually great, some species of insects and bacteria have undergone significant change in just a few years.

    • Explain why short generation time is conducive to evolution in some insects and bacteria.
    • Explain why certain organisms may undergo significant changes in a short period of time.
    • Explain how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. 
    • Explain how short generation time is advantageous to the evolutionary process.


    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    insects

    bacteria


    generation time

    mutation

    variation

    resistance

    susceptibility


    •  Conduct activities that demonstrate how short generation times provides the capability for change.
    •  Research the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

    • How does short generation time influence evolution in certain species such as insects and bacteria?

     

    STANDARD 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea: 7 Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.

    Performance Indicator 7.2: Describe the effects of environmental changes on humans and other populations.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Assessments


    7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in long-term gradual changes (ecological succession).


    • Describe the process of succession.

    • Identify factors that cause changes in various ecosystems.
    • Explain the process of succession



    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    ecological succession


    pioneer species

    colonize




    • Use a stereomicroscope to examine common lichens and mosses, and discuss what characteristics make them suitable for harsh conditions.  
    • Explain what would happen if a backyard lawn were not mowed for an extended period of time.
    • Show videos and diagrams on what succession looks like over time.





    • How does succession lead to stability?

    STANDARD 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea: 7 Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.

    Performance Indicator 7.2: Describe the effects of environmental changes on humans and other populations.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    7.2c Overpopulation by any species impacts the environment due to the increased use of resources. Human activities can bring about environmental degradation through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, waste disposal, etc.





    • Describe the effects of overpopulation on the environment.

    • Describe some specific ways that human overpopulation is having a detrimental effect on the environment.
    • List human activities that are detrimental to the environment and their consequences.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    overpopulation 

    environmental degradation

    resource acquisition

    urban growth

    waste disposal

    (non)renewable resources

    habitat destruction

    endangered 

    extinct

    landfill

    incinerator

    toxic waste

    groundwater


    • Compost!
    • Personal research projects on current environmental topics.
    • F.Y.I Posters that feature a specific environmental problem, its causes and effects.

    • How do human activities affect the environment?

    STANDARD 4: The Living Environment

    Key Idea: 7 Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.

    Performance Indicator 7.2: Describe the effects of environmental changes on humans and other populations.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth’s resources.

      




    • Describe some ways that the environment is affected by pollution.
    • State ways that the Earth’s resources can be conserved and protected.



    • Identify and describe causes of environmental pollution.
    • Describe the environmental effects of various pollutants.
    • List and describe preventative actions against environmental pollution.

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    Industrial Revolution  

    acid rain

    global warming

    ozone depletion


    greenhouse effect

    UV radiation

    CFCs

    conservation





    • Research the effects of environmental pollution from source to the impact on population.

    • How does environmental pollution affect the Earth’s resources?

    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    State Performance Indicator 2.1: Explain how the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and lithosphere (land), interact, evolve, and change.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.1b     As altitude increases, air pressure decreases.












      • Define air pressure in terms air mass
      • Identify the factors that affect air pressure (density, altitude).
    • Describe the relationship between altitude and air pressure.

    \

    Vocabulary/Visuals

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    altitude

    air pressure


    barometer (ES)

    moisture (ES)

    gravity (1.1d)

    sea level

    mountain valley (ES)

    valley (ES)









      • Do a demonstration of air pressure with a glass or plastic tumbler, water, and cardboard showing how water does not escape due to air pressure in all directions.
      • Show the students a barometer.  
      • Have students graph altitude vs. air pressure.

      • What causes air pressure?

    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    2.2k The uneven heating of Earth's surface is the cause of weather.





    • Explain the cause of weather
    • Explain how uneven heating of the Earth causes weather.





    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    weather

    heating

    • Construct models illustrating uneven heating
    • Observe satellite photos showing the earth’s temperature


    • How does heat cause weather?

    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    State Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    2.2l Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth's surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.





    (Science 6)




    • Describe the air masses that affect the U.S. and give their origin.
    • Describe the conditions necessary for an air mass to form.
    • Given a location describe the type of air mass that would form over that location.


    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    air mass

    temperature

    humidity

    pressure








     
    • How do air masses form?
    • What can the properties of an air mass tell us about the location where it formed?







    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    State Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    2.2m Most local weather condition changes are caused by movement of air masses.



    (Science 6)

    •     Explain how air masses move and how they affect weather.

    •     Describe different weather conditions that may exist.
    •     Explain the relationship between air masses and weather conditions.
    •     Describe the movement of air masses.



    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    local weather


    high pressure system (2.2p)

    low pressure system (2.2p)

    cyclone (ES)



    front (2.2o)

    tornado (2.2q)

    hurricane (2.2q)

    blizzard (2.2q)








    • Access local weather site on-line (ex. News8.com) to observe local weather conditions.
    • Observe the movement of air masses.





    • How does the movement of air masses affect our local weather conditions?

    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    State Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.2n The movement of air masses is determined by prevailing winds and upper air currents.





    (Science 6)

        

    •    Describe wind as the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
    • Describe how prevailing winds and air currents affect the movement of air masses.

    • Given a map of North America diagram the prevailing winds.


    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    prevailing winds

    upper air currents


    high pressure system (2.2p)

    low pressure system (2.2p)





    • Illustrate on a map the direction of the prevailing winds.
    • What influence the movement of air masses?
    • What is the direction of the prevailing winds?







    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    State Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    2.2o Fronts are boundaries between air masses.  Precipitation is likely to occur at these boundaries.





    (Science 6)


    • Given two air masses determine their density relative to each other.
    • Describe in terms of density what causes the air movement at a front.
    • Explain how the movement of air at a front leads to cloud formation and precipitation.

    •   Given a map with a front identify the conditions for a given location as the front approaches and passes.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    front

    precipitation

    air mass


    cold front (ES)

    occluded front (ES)

    stationary front (ES)



    • Make a graphic organizer comparing/ contrasting the fronts.
    • Diagram the vertical movement of air and wind direction at a front and the effect on cloud formation and precipitation.
    • What happens to the different air masses at a front?
    • Why is precipitation associated with a front?

    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    2.2p High-pressure systems generally bring fair weather.  Low-pressure systems usually bring cloudy, unstable conditions.  The general movement of highs and lows is from west to east across the United States.








    • Describe the movement of high and low pressure systems.
    • Describe the type of weather that high and low pressure systems bring.
    • Identify the types of weather associated with different weather systems.
    • Use a map of to identify the movement of air pressure systems

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    High pressure system

    Low pressure system

    Unstable conditions

    • Utilize a barometer to measure air pressure. Record data for a week and evaluate.  Make conclusions in the type of weather there will be. Make a forecast according to your data.
    • Analyze forecast maps to see what weather different pressure systems are bringing





    • How do pressure systems affect the weather?

    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    2.2q Hazardous weather conditions include thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, ice storms, and blizzards. Humans can prepare for and respond to these conditions if given sufficient warning.







    • Identify and describe the conditions for each severe weather terminology.
    • Distinguish the difference between a warning and watch.
    • Explain what causes lightning and thunder in a thunderstorm.




    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    Thunderstorms

    Tornadoes

    Hurricane

    Ice storm

    Blizzard









    • Read articles describing hazardous weather conditions
    • Research and report specific weather related disasters
    • Create hazardous weather preparation checklists.


    • What is severe weather?
    • What should we do to stay safe during these severe weather conditions?



    Standard 4: The Physical Setting

    Key Idea 2: Many phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

    State Performance Indicator 2.2: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    2.2r Substances enter the atmosphere naturally and from human activity.  Some of these substances include dust from volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor.  These substances can affect weather, climate, and living things.



    (Science 6)

    •     Explain the affect substances in the atmosphere have on weather, climate and living things.
    • Explain how both human and natural activities add greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere.

       




    •    Identify the greenhouse gases and explain how they enter the atmosphere.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    human activity

    greenhouse effect

    carbon dioxide

    methane

    water vapor


    weather (2.2i)

    climate (2.2j)

    pollution (7.2d)

    greenhouse effect

     
    •        
    • How do substances enter the atmosphere?
    • What effect do they have on the weather, climate, and living things?
    • What are greenhouse gases and how do they affect weather and climate?

     

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.1:  Observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1h     Density can be described as the amount of matter that is in a given amount of space.  If two objects have equal volume, but one has more mass, the one with more mass is denser.




    • Investigate the density of various objects/substances.
    • Explain the property of density as a derived measurement.
    • Explain how to determine the density of an object.








    • Calculate the density, mass, volume of various objects using the formula for density.
    • Compare the relative density of objects   and substances.
    • Calculate the density of a specific material of different sizes.
    • Define density.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    density

    mass

    volume


    • Investigate the density of various objects/substances.
    • Apply the formula of density to complete a chart of mass, volume, density.

    • What is density?
    • How can the density of an object be determined?











    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.1:  Observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1i     Buoyancy is determined by comparative densities.


    • Explain the relationship between buoyancy and density.
    • Describe the concept/property of buoyancy.










    • Define buoyancy.
    • Explain why heavy objects/structures can float.
    • Compare and contrast the definitions of buoyancy and density.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    Buoyancy

    Comparative Density


    • Investigate the buoyancies of various objects.
    • Design objects / structures that will be buoyant in water.












    • What makes an object buoyant?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.1:  Observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1b     Solubility can be affected by the nature of the solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure.  The rate of solution can be affected by the size of the particles, stirring, temperature, and the amount of solute already dissolved.



    • Identify the factors that affect the solubility of substances.  
    • Explain why solubility will be different under different conditions.

    • List the factors that affect solubility and the rate of solution.
    • Explain how the rate of solution may increase or decrease depending on various conditions.
    • Identify what factors increase/decrease the rate of solution.




    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    solubility

    solute

    solvent

    temperature

    pressure

    rate of solution


    saturated

    concentrated

    supersaturated

    dilute

    unsaturated


    • Conduct investigations or factors that affect the rate of solubility by testing each variable against a control.
    • Develop a solubility chart for various substances at different temperatures.
    • Prepare solutions under various conditions and draw conclusions on the rate of solubility in each condition.









    • How can the rate of solubility be affected?
    • What makes a substance soluble?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.1:  Observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.1c     The motion of particles helps to explain the phases (states) of matter as well as changes from one phase to another.  The phase in which matter exists depends on the attractive forces among its particles.


    • Explain the conditions under which matter changes from one phase to another.
    • Explain how the state of matter of a substance is dependant on the interaction of its particles.

    • Identify the different processes that cause changes in states of matter.
    • Explain how temperature changes can cause changes in the states of matter.
    • Identify the points at which water changes phases on a phase change chart/graph.






    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    matter

    phase (states)

    attractive forces


    solid (3.1f)

    liquid (3.1e)

    gas (3.1d)

    boiling (3.1a)

    freezing (3.1a)

    melting (Appendix B)

    sublimation (3.1f)

    precipitation


    • Conduct investigations that change the state of matter via the changes in temperature.
    • Observe the process of sublimation with dry ice.
    • Observe the melting point of sugar crystals.

    • Why does matter change from one state to another?
    • How does matter change from one state to another?











     

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.2:  Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2a     During a physical change a substance keeps its chemical composition and properties.  Examples of physical changes include freezing, melting, condensation, boiling, evaporation, tearing, and crushing.







    • Describe physical changes in terms of physical processes and changes in physical properties.
    • Explain why physical changes do not involve changes in chemical composition and properties.

    • Identify and list examples of physical changes.
    • Define a physical change.
    • Compare the processes of physical changes.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    chemical composition

    freezing

    condensation

    boiling

    evaporation

    tearing

    crushing

    melting

    physical change


    physical properties (2.1e)

    chemical properties (3.2c)


    • Conduct activities that involve the physical changes of objects / substances.
    • Construct a list of physical properties and physical changes.












    • What happens to substances during a physical change?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.2:  Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2b     Mixtures are physical combinations of materials and can be separated by physical means.





    • Explain how mixtures can be separated.
    • Explain why mixtures do not involve chemical changes / interactions.






    • Describe how various mixtures can be physically separated into its components.
    • Identify and describe the physical composition of mixtures.
    • Classify substances as mixtures or not.







    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    mixtures

    physical combinations

    physical means


    • Conduct activities that separate the component of various mixtures.
    • Identify mixtures based on the physical combination and separation.












    • How can mixtures be identified?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.2:  Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2c     During a chemical change, substances react in characteristic ways to form new substances with different physical and chemical properties.  Examples of chemical changes include burning of wood, cooking of an egg, rusting of iron, and souring of milk.







    • Describe how substances change chemically.
    • Explain how chemical properties change as a result of chemical changes.

    • Identify and define chemical changes.
    • Explain the process of a chemical change.
    • Explain the results of a chemical change.
    • Classify changes as chemical or physical.
    • Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    chemical change

    chemical properties


    chemical reaction (3.2e)

    reactant (3.2e)

    product (3.2e)

    chemical equation (Chemistry)











    • Conduct a series of chemical changes and have students observe and record the changes in properties of the substances.
    • Identify both chemical and physical changes from observation and record the differences.

    • How can new substances be formed?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 4:  Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

    Performance Indicator 4.2:  Describe the sources and identify the transformations of energy observed in everyday life.


    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    4.2e    Temperature affects the solubility of some substances in water.




    • Explain how temperature affects the molecular action and solubility of some substances.
    • Explain the different effect on solubility of a solid or a gas as the solute.

    • Predict the solubility of substances in hot versus cold water, and the difference in substances going into solution (particle size)
    • Explain the molecular changes occurring with increased temperature of a substance.







    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    Temperature

    solubility




    • Dissolve substances in hot and cold water. Include substances that do not dissolve, and different sized particles (large solid versus granulated ingredients). Collect data, graph and analyze results. 
    • Discuss the molecular behavior of hot water molecules impacting the solubility of some substances - (both solids (Jello mix, sugar) and gases (carbon dioxide in soda).
    • Discuss properties of substances that dissolve and the impact of temperature on the process.




      • How does temperature affect solubility?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.2:  Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2e     The Law of Conservation of Matter states that during an ordinary chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed.  In chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.









    • Explain The Law of Conservation of Matter.
    • Describe The Law of Conservation of Matter in terms of physical and chemical changes.

    • Define The Law of Conservation of Matter.
    • Explain The Law of Conservation of Matter as it is expressed in chemical equations and reactions.



    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    Law of Conservation of Mass

    chemical reaction

    reactants

    products


    chemical equations (Chemistry)









    • Conduct activities that demonstrate The Law of Conservation of Matter.
    • Demonstrate The Law of Conservation of Matter using simple concrete examples.
    • Conduct investigations on the mass of reactants and the mass of products from chemical reactions.

    • How is mass conserved during chemical reactions?



    Standard 4: Physical Setting

    Key Idea 4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

    Performance Indicator 4.3 Observe and describe energy changes as related to chemical reaction.

    Major Understanding

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment

    4.3a In chemical reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system.  Light, electricity, or mechanical motion may be involved in such transfers in addition to heat.

    • Explain how energy is transferred in chemical reactions (absorbed or released).







    • Identify and describe the energy transformations in chemical reactions.




    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    chemical reaction

    light

    electricity

    mechanical motion

    system


    endothermic  (Chemistry)

    exothermic (Chemistry)

    products (3.2e)

    reaction (3.2e)

    reactants (3.2e)





    • Investigate various chemical reactions and determine if energy is absorbed or released.

    • What is the role of energy in chemical reaction?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.2:  Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.2d     Substances are often placed in categories if they react in similar ways.  Examples include metals, nonmetals, and noble gases.





    • Explain how similar substances have similar reactivity.
    • Explain how substances can be classified based on reactivity.









    • Classify substances based on metals, nonmetals or noble gases.
    • Explain why certain groups of substances react in a similar way.
    • Identify substances based on their reactivity.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    substances

    metals

    nonmetals

    noble gases

    reactivity (Appendix B)


    chemical reaction


    • Conduct a series of chemical reactions and have students predict the reaction and compare the results.
    • Conduct demonstrations and lab activities based on chemical equations.











    • How do chemical properties determine the way substances will react?

     

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3a     All matter is made up of atoms.  Atoms are fall too small to see with a light microscope.










    • Describe the model of an atom.
    • Define an atom based on its component parts and overall structure.

    • Define an atom/
    • Identify the parts of an atom.
    • Explain the model of an atom using an operational definition.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    matter

    atom


    subatomic particles (Chemistry)

    charge (Chemistry)

    proton (Chemistry)

    neutron (Chemistry)

    electron (Chemistry)

    energy shell 

    electron cloud (Chemistry)









    • Draw and label models of atoms.
    • Build models of atoms and identify the parts.

    • What is an atom?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3b     Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion.  The greater the temperature, the greater the motion.











    • Explain the behavior of atoms with the changes in temperature.

    • Explain how temperature affects the motion of atoms and molecules.

    Vocabulary

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    molecules

    perpetually in motion


    temperature (3.1b)














    • Demonstrate how temperature affects the particles in a substance.
    • Observe the effects of a cold condition versus a hot condition on the particles of substances.

    • How does temperature affect atoms and molecules?


    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3c     Atoms may join together in well-defined molecules or may be arranged in regular geometric patterns.








    • Describe how atoms interact with each other to form specific molecules.

    • Describe how bonds are formed.
    • Identify substances based on their geometric structures or formula.
    • Describe how simple compounds are formed.
    • Identify and list the properties of compounds.





    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    regular geometric patterns


    geometric structure

    compound (3.3f)

    chemical formula (Chemistry)

    subscript

    coefficient (Chemistry)


    • Conduct laboratory / investigative activities to demonstrate how compounds are formed.
    • Demonstrate the four basic types of chemical reactions.












    • How are compounds formed?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3d     Interactions among atoms and/or molecules result in chemical reactions.












    • Describe chemical reactions in terms of the interactions of atoms or molecules.
    • Describe the components and process of a chemical reaction.

    • Identify and label the components of a chemical reaction / equation.
    • Explain the process / interaction of a chemical reaction.
    • Match chemical reactions with equations.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    chemical reactions


    chemical equation  (Chemistry)

    reactants (3.2e)

    products  (3.2e)

    subscript

    coefficient (Chemistry)










    • Conduct and explain a series of chemical reactions.
    • Identify chemical equations and explain the chemical reaction that is taking place.

    • How do chemical reactions occur?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3e     The atoms of any one element are different from the atoms of other elements.


    • Describe the composition and properties of elements.
    • Compare and contrast the atoms of various elements.










    • Identify elements based on their chemical symbols.
    • Identify atoms of particular/specific elements based on their atomic properties.





    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions


    element


    pure substance


    • Draw models of atoms for the elements they represent.
    • Build models of atoms based on their electron arrangement.











    • What makes an element a pure substance?





    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3f     There are more than 100 elements.  Elements combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that account for all living and nonliving substances.  Few elements are found in their pure form.










    • Explain how elements combine to form other substances.

    • Identify the elements found in various substances.
    • Identify the elements that are formed in a pure form in nature.

    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    compounds


    elements (3.3e)

    bonding (Chemistry)









    • Use formulas of common substances to identify the composition of elements.
    • Have students research the elements contained in specific substances.

    • How can different substances be made from the same elements?

    Standard 4: Physical Settings

    Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

    Performance Indicator 3.3:  Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.


    Major Understandings

    Performance Objectives

    Suggested Assessment


    3.3g     The periodic table is one useful model for classifying elements.  The periodic table can be used to predict properties of elements (metals, nonmetals, noble gases).





    • Describe the role of the periodic table in understanding the properties of elements.
    • Describe the information that we can obtain from the periodic table.

    • Label the major parts of the periodic table.
    • Identify and determine atomic number, atomic mass, symbol and element name.
    • Identify the groups / family and rows / periods on the periodic table.
    • Explain how the periodic table can be used to predict behavior of elements.





    Vocabulary 

    Suggested Activities

    Conceptual Questions

    periodic table

    classifying

    metals

    nonmetals

    noble gases


    atomic mass (Chemistry)

    atomic number (Chemistry)

    element symbol

    element name









    • Conduct activities that lead to the identification of elements based on properties provided by the periodic table.

    • What can we learn from the periodic table of elements?